Isolation and characterization of a transcriptional cofactor and its novel isoform that bind the deoxyribonucleic acid-binding domain of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma

Endocrinology. 2006 Jan;147(1):377-88. doi: 10.1210/en.2005-0450. Epub 2005 Oct 20.


Using the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and hinge region of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma as bait in yeast two-hybrid screen, we isolated partial cDNA identical with that of the C terminal of KIAA1769. KIAA1769 encodes a 2080-amino acid protein (molecular mass, 231 kDa) that was recently identified to interact with PPARalpha and termed PPARalpha-interacting cofactor 285 (here referred to as PPARgamma-DBD-interacting protein 1 (PDIP1)-alpha). PDIP1 mRNA was expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and THP-1 macrophages. We also identified the expression of the N terminal extended form of PDIP1alpha (referred to as PDIP1beta) consisting of 2649 amino acids (295 kDa) in human cultured cell lines by RT-PCR, and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Ribonuclease protection assay revealed that PDIP1beta mRNA was expressed more abundantly than PDIP1alpha mRNA. The C-terminal region of PDIP1 directly binds DBD of PPARgamma, and multiple LXXLL motifs in PDIP1 were not required for the interaction. PDIP1alpha and -beta similarly enhanced PPARgamma-mediated transactivation in transfection assays and short interfering RNA targeting PDIP1 mRNA significantly reduced transactivation by PPARgamma. No potent intrinsic activation domain was identified in either PDIP1 isoforms in mammalian one-hybrid assays, and mutation of all LXXLL motifs did not affect enhancement of PPARgamma-mediated transactivation. PDIP1alpha and -beta similarly augmented transactivation by PPARalpha, PPARdelta, thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-alpha1, TRbeta1, and retinoid X receptor-alpha. PDIP1alpha also enhanced estrogen receptoralpha- and androgen receptor-mediated transactivation, whereas PDIP1beta did not. PDIP1alpha showed receptor-specific synergism with activation function-2-interacting coactivators in PPARgamma- and TRbeta1-mediated transactivation. Together, PDIP1 might function as a transcriptional cofactor for a broad range of nuclear receptors, possibly in collaboration with specific activation function-2 interacting coactivators.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 3T3 Cells
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Binding Sites
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cloning, Molecular
  • DNA / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Macrophages / physiology
  • Mice
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism*
  • Protein Isoforms / genetics
  • Protein Isoforms / metabolism
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes


  • Carrier Proteins
  • KCTD13 protein, human
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • PPAR gamma
  • Protein Isoforms
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • DNA
  • PDIP1 protein, mouse
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes