Meta-analysis of the brief psychiatric rating scale factor structure

Psychol Assess. 2005 Sep;17(3):324-35. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.17.3.324.


A meta-analysis (N=17,620; k=26) of factor analyses of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was conducted. Analysis of the 12 items from Overall et al.'s (J. E. Overall, L. E. Hollister, & P. Pichot, 1974) 4 subscales found support for his 4 subscales. Analysis of all 18 BPRS items found 4 components similar to those of Overall et al. In a 5-component solution, a 5th activation component emerged but was best supported among samples of schizophrenic patients. The first 4 components appear to form the core of the BPRS factor structure. Results of the meta-analysis suggest 5 subscales (with items in parentheses): Affect (anxiety, guilt, depression, somatic); Positive Symptoms (thought content, conceptual disorganization, hallucinatory behavior, grandiosity); Negative Symptoms (blunted affect, emotional withdrawal, motor retardation); Resistance (hostility, uncooperativeness, suspiciousness); and Activation (excitement, tension, mannerisms-posturing).

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale / statistics & numerical data*
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical*
  • Humans
  • Psychometrics / methods
  • Reproducibility of Results