The complete nucleotide sequence of human papillomavirus type 41 (HPV-41) has been determined. HPV-41 was originally isolated from a facial wart, but its DNA has subsequently been detected in some skin carcinomas and premalignant keratoses (Grimmel et al., Int. J. Cancer, 1988, 41, 5-9; de Villiers, Grimmel and Neumann, unpublished results). The analysis of the cloned HPV-41 nucleic acid reveals that its genome organisation is characteristic as for other papillomavirus types. Yet, the analysis indicates at the same time that this virus is most distantly related to all other types of human-pathogenic papillomaviruses sequenced thus far and appears to identify HPV-41 as the first member of a new subgroup of HPV. The overall nucleotide homology to other sequenced HPV types is below 50%. The closest other HPV type is represented by HPV-18, sharing 49% identical nucleotides. The typical E2 binding sequence ACCN6GGT, found in all papillomaviruses analyzed to date, does not occur in the URR of the HPV-41 genome. Modified E2 binding sequences, as described for BPV 1 (Li et al., Genes Dev. 1989, 3, 510-526), are located in the domain proximal to the E6 ORF. These are ACCN6GTT, AACN6GGT and the two perfect palindromic sequences AACGAATTCGTT.