Application of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis to interrogate alterations in the proteome of genetically modified crops. 2. Assessing natural variability

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2162-8. doi: 10.1021/jf052357y.


Proteomics is currently tested as a complementary tool for the safety assessment of genetically modified (GM) crops. Understanding the natural variability of the proteome is crucial for the interpretation of biological differences between transgenic and nontransgenic parental lines. The natural variation of seed protein profiles among a set of 12 Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes was determined by utilizing two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE). The total number of different resolved protein spots found among the 12 ecotypes was 931 with a range of 573 (Mt-0) to 653 (Condara) in any one ecotype. Although the ecotypes were grown side-by-side in an environmentally controlled growth chamber, almost half of the resolved spots varied with respect to their presence/absence, and 95% of the spots present in all ecotypes varied in spot quantity (2-53-fold). In the evaluation of unintended effects of genetic modification, it is concluded that the experimental design must account for existing natural variability, which, in the case of the expressed proteome, can be substantial.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / chemistry*
  • Arabidopsis / genetics
  • Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional*
  • Genetic Variation
  • Phenotype
  • Plants, Genetically Modified / chemistry*
  • Proteome / analysis*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Seeds / chemistry*


  • Proteome