Effects of fat on gastric emptying of and the glycemic, insulin, and incretin responses to a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes

J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2062-7. doi: 10.1210/jc.2005-2644. Epub 2006 Mar 14.


Context: Gastric emptying (GE) is a major determinant of postprandial glycemia. Because the presence of fat in the small intestine inhibits GE, ingestion of fat may attenuate the glycemic response to carbohydrate.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of patterns of fat consumption on GE and glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) concentrations after a carbohydrate meal in type 2 diabetes.

Design: This was a randomized, cross-over study in which GE of a radioisotopically labeled potato meal was measured on 3 d.

Setting: The study was performed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital.

Patients: Six males with type 2 diabetes were studied.

Intervention: Subjects ingested 1) 30 ml water 30 min before the mashed potato (water), 2) 30 ml olive oil 30 min before the mashed potato (oil), or 3) 30 ml water 30 min before the mashed potato meal that contained 30 ml olive oil (water and oil).

Main outcome measures: GE, blood glucose, plasma insulin, GLP-1, and GIP concentrations were the main outcome measures.

Results: GE was much slower with oil compared with both water (P < 0.0001) and water and oil (P < 0.05) and was slower after water and oil compared with water (P < 0.01). The postprandial rise in blood glucose was markedly delayed (P = 0.03), and peak glucose occurred later (P = 0.04) with oil compared with the two other meals. The rises in insulin and GIP were attenuated (P < 0.0001), whereas the GLP-1 response was greater (P = 0.0001), after oil.

Conclusions: Ingestion of fat before a carbohydrate meal markedly slows GE and attenuates the postprandial rises in glucose, insulin, and GIP, but stimulates GLP-1, in type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / metabolism*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Gastric Emptying*
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide / blood*
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 / blood*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged


  • Blood Glucose
  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Fats
  • Insulin
  • Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1