Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products

J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 19;54(8):3008-11. doi: 10.1021/jf052776v.


Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs.

MeSH terms

  • Bread / analysis
  • Calcium Oxalate
  • Edible Grain / chemistry*
  • Flour / analysis
  • Food Handling / methods
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi / chemistry
  • Kidney Calculi / etiology
  • Oxalates / adverse effects
  • Oxalates / analysis*
  • Solubility
  • Triticum / chemistry


  • Oxalates
  • Calcium Oxalate