Runx2 is an essential factor for skeletogenesis and heterozygous loss causes cleidocranial dysplasia in humans and a corresponding phenotype in the mouse. Homozygous Runx2-deficient mice lack hypertrophic cartilage and bone. We compared the expression profiles of E14.5 wildtype and Runx2(-/-) murine embryonal humeri to identify new transcripts potentially involved in cartilage and bone development. Seventy-one differentially expressed genes were identified by two independent oligonucleotide-microarray hybridizations and quantitative RT-PCR experiments. Gene Ontology analysis demonstrated an enrichment of the differentially regulated genes in annotations to terms such as extracellular, skeletal development, and ossification. In situ hybridization on E15.5 limb sections was performed for all 71 differentially regulated genes. For 54 genes conclusive in situ hybridization results were obtained and all of them showed skeletal expression. Co-expression with Runx2 was demonstrated for 44 genes. While 41 of the 71 differentially expressed genes have a known role in bone and cartilage, we identified 21 known genes that have not yet been implicated in skeletal development and 9 entirely new transcripts. Expression in the developing skeleton was demonstrated for 21 of these genes.