Effects of Oral Magnesium Supplementation on Glycaemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trials

Diabet Med. 2006 Oct;23(10):1050-6. doi: 10.1111/j.1464-5491.2006.01852.x.

Abstract

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the evidence on the effect of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Methods: We searched the electronic databases of medline, embase and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to January 2005. We identified nine randomized double-blind controlled trials with a total of 370 patients with Type 2 diabetes and of duration 4-16 weeks. The median dose of oral magnesium supplementation was 15 mmol/day (360 mg/day) in the treatment groups. The primary outcome was glycaemic control, as measured by glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) or fasting blood glucose levels; the secondary outcomes included body mass index, blood pressure (BP) and lipids. Using a random-effects model, we calculated the weighted mean differences (WMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI).

Results: After a median duration of 12 weeks, the weighted mean post-intervention fasting glucose was significantly lower in the treatment groups compared with the placebo groups [-0.56 mmol/l (95% CI, -1.10 to -0.01); P for heterogeneity = 0.02]. The difference in post-intervention HbA(1c) between magnesium supplementation groups and control groups was not significant [-0.31% (95% CI, -0.81 to 0.19); P for heterogeneity = 0.10]. Neither systolic nor diastolic BP was significantly changed. Magnesium supplementation increased on high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels [0.08 mmol/l (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.14); P for heterogeneity = 0.36] but had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglyceride.

Conclusions: Oral magnesium supplementation for 4-16 weeks may be effective in reducing plasma fasting glucose levels and raising HDL cholesterol in patients with Type 2 diabetes, although the long-term benefits and safety of magnesium treatment on glycaemic control remain to be determined.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Oral
  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / analysis*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / drug therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Magnesium