The calcium-binding Mts1/S100A4 protein plays an important role in motility and metastatic activity of tumor cells. Recently we showed that Mts1/S100A4 is expressed in white matter astrocytes and influences their migration in vitro and in vivo. Here, we have investigated the role of Mts1/S100A4 expression in C6 glioma cells or surrounding astrocytes for migration of C6 cells on astrocytes, using short interference (si) RNA to silence Mts1/S100A4 expression. We find that in vitro, the migration of Mts1/S100A4 expressing and silenced C6 cells on astrocytes is predominantly dependent on the expression of Mts1/S100A4 in astrocytes, i.e. C6 cells preferably migrate on Mts1/S100A4-silenced astrocytes. In vivo, Mts1/S100A4-positive C6 cells preferably migrate in white matter. In contrast Mts1/S100A4-silenced C6 cells avoid white matter and migrate in gray matter and meninges. Thus, the migration pattern of C6 cells is affected by their intrinsic Mts1/S100A4 expression as well as Mts1/S100A4 expression in astrocytes. To investigate if Mts1/S100A4 has a significant role on brain tumor progression, we made quantitative RT-PCR analysis for the expression of S100A4/Mts1 in various grades of astrocytic tumors. Our data showed that high-grade glioblastomas express higher amount of S100A4/Mts1 than low-grade astrocytic tumors.