Profiles of hemodynamics and oxygen transport derived by using continuous measured oxygen consumption after the Norwood procedure

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2007 Feb;133(2):441-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2006.09.033.


Objectives: The lack of accurate measurement of hemodynamics and oxygen transport has limited our understanding of Norwood physiology and postoperative management. We used measured oxygen consumption to characterize hemodynamics and oxygen transport after the classic Norwood procedure.

Methods: Fourteen neonates had continuous respiratory mass spectrometry to measure oxygen consumption (VO2). Arterial, superior vena caval, and pulmonary venous saturations were measured at 2- to 4-hour intervals for 72 hours postoperatively. Systemic (Qs) and pulmonary (Qp) blood flows, systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and pulmonary vascular resistance inclusive of the Blalock-Taussig shunt (BT-PVR), systemic oxygen delivery (DO2), and the oxygen extraction ratio (ERO2) were calculated.

Results: Qs and DO2 were low during the first 12 hours (1.8 +/- 0.6 L x min(-1) x m(-2) and 281 +/- 86 mL x min(-1) x m(-2) at the 12th hour, respectively) and increased over the study period (P < .05 for both). VO2 decreased markedly during the first 24 hours (101 +/- 26 to 86 +/- 16 mL x min(-1) x m(-2), P < .0001). Consequently, ERO2 decreased significantly over the study, most rapidly during the first 24 hours (0.44 +/- 0.11 to 0.28 +/- 0.09, P < .0001). There was a close correlation of DO2 to SVR and to Qs (P < .0001 for both). There was no correlation of DO2 to BT-PVR (P = .14) or to Qp (P = .67). DO2 was closely correlated with hemoglobin value (P < .0001), weakly correlated with PaO2 (P = .0002), and not correlated with arterial oxygen saturation (P = .32).

Conclusions: There is wide variability of hemodynamics and oxygen transport after the Norwood procedure. The decrease in VO2 during the first 24 hours is the main contributor to improving the balance of oxygen transport. DO2 is most closely correlated to SVR and hemoglobin and weakly correlated to PaO2. It is not correlated to Qp. Postoperative management strategies to decrease VO2 and maintain a high hemoglobin level and a low SVR appear to be rational.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / methods*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / mortality
  • Cohort Studies
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / diagnosis
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / mortality
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome / surgery*
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intensive Care Units, Neonatal
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Monitoring, Physiologic / methods
  • Oximetry
  • Oxygen / blood*
  • Oxygen Consumption*
  • Postoperative Care / methods
  • Pulmonary Gas Exchange
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
  • Survival Rate
  • Vascular Resistance


  • Oxygen