The objective of this study was to estimate the direct costs of invasive cervical cancer (ICC) management to the French national health insurance system the 1st year after ICC diagnosis. A retrospective survey was conducted in three centres in 2005, including 42 patients admitted for ICC between 2001-2003. Medical records were examined for data relating to treatments and to determine the management costs. To estimate the annual cost of ICC management in France, data were extrapolated to the general population. The number of new ICC cases in France was estimated at 3,247 in 2003. The mean hospitalisation cost increased with ICC severity at diagnosis: 9,164 euros for stage I, 15,999 euros for stage II, 22,697 euros for stage III, and 26,886 euros for stage IV. The annual cost associated with the medical management of ICC patients was estimated at 43,862,125 euros (sensitivity range 32,973,461 euros-54,748,422 euros) corresponding to a mean patient cost of 13,509 euros. Recent HPV vaccination studies have shown 100 % for a quadrivalent (6,11,16,18) HPV vaccine against HPV-induced carcinoma in situ (FIGO stage 0/CIN3), a precursor lesion that may develop into ICC. Thus, it is expected that this vaccine will significantly reduce the socio-economic burden associated with this disease.