The effects of foods, beverages, and other factors on cigarette palatability

Nicotine Tob Res. 2007 Apr;9(4):505-10. doi: 10.1080/14622200701243177.


While smokers commonly report that various foods and beverages worsen or enhance the taste of cigarettes, the prevalence and diversity of these phenomena have not been studied. We administered an open-ended questionnaire to 209 smokers asking for reports of foods or beverages that worsen or enhance the taste of cigarettes. Commonly reported categories that worsen the taste of cigarettes were fruits/vegetables, noncaffeinated beverages, and dairy products. Commonly reported categories that enhance the taste of cigarettes were caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and meat products. Regression analyses indicated that increased sensitivity to both taste worsening and enhancing were associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes. These findings suggest smoking menthol cigarettes reduces both negative and positive effects of food and beverage consumption on smoking satisfaction - thus "evening out" the smoking experience. Clinical implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Alcoholic Beverages / statistics & numerical data
  • Beverages / statistics & numerical data*
  • Caffeine / administration & dosage
  • Dairy Products
  • Dietary Fats
  • Feeding Behavior*
  • Female
  • Food / statistics & numerical data*
  • Fruit
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Smoking / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / physiopathology*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Taste*
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vegetables


  • Dietary Fats
  • Caffeine