Lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine decrease mitochondrial-related oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease patient fibroblasts

J Alzheimers Dis. 2007 Sep;12(2):195-206. doi: 10.3233/jad-2007-12210.


In this study, we evaluated the effect of lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) on oxidative [4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine and heme oxygenase-1] and apoptotic (caspase 9 and Bax) markers in fibroblasts from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and age-matched and young controls. AD fibroblasts showed the highest levels of oxidative stress, and the antioxidants, lipoic acid (1 mM) and/or N-acetyl cysteine (100 microM) exerted a protective effect as evidenced by decreases in oxidative stress and apoptotic markers. Furthermore, we observed that the protective effect of LA and NAC was more pronounced when both agents were present simultaneously. AD-type changes could be generated in control fibroblasts using N-methylprotoporphyrin to inhibit cytochrome oxidase assembly indicating that the the oxidative damage observed was associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The effects of N-methylprotoporphyrine were reversed or attenuated by both lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine. These data suggest mitochondria are important in oxidative damage that occurs in AD. As such, antioxidant therapies based on lipoic acid and N-acetyl cysteine supplementation may be promising.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylcysteine / administration & dosage
  • Acetylcysteine / pharmacology*
  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy*
  • Fibroblasts / drug effects*
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Mitochondria / drug effects*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Thioctic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Thioctic Acid / pharmacology*


  • Thioctic Acid
  • Acetylcysteine