In this report we describe a mathematical model for the regulation of cAMP dynamics in pancreatic beta-cells. Incretin hormones such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) increase cAMP and augment insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Imaging experiments performed in MIN6 insulinoma cells expressing a genetically encoded cAMP biosensor and loaded with fura-2, a calcium indicator, showed that cAMP oscillations are differentially regulated by periodic changes in membrane potential and GLP-1. We modeled the interplay of intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) and its interaction with calmodulin, G protein-coupled receptor activation, adenylyl cyclases (AC), and phosphodiesterases (PDE). Simulations with the model demonstrate that cAMP oscillations are coupled to cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations in the beta-cell. Slow Ca(2+) oscillations (<1 min(-1)) produce low-frequency cAMP oscillations, and faster Ca(2+) oscillations (>3-4 min(-1)) entrain high-frequency, low-amplitude cAMP oscillations. The model predicts that GLP-1 receptor agonists induce cAMP oscillations in phase with cytoplasmic Ca(2+) oscillations. In contrast, observed antiphasic Ca(2+) and cAMP oscillations can be simulated following combined glucose and tetraethylammonium-induced changes in membrane potential. The model provides additional evidence for a pivotal role for Ca(2+)-dependent AC and PDE activation in coupling of Ca(2+) and cAMP signals. Our results reveal important differences in the effects of glucose/TEA and GLP-1 on cAMP dynamics in MIN6 beta-cells.