Transcriptional programs that regulate development are exquisitely controlled in space and time. Elucidating these programs that underlie development is essential to understanding the acquisition of cell and tissue identity. We present microarray expression profiles of a high-resolution set of developmental time points within a single Arabidopsis root and a comprehensive map of nearly all root cell types. These cell type-specific transcriptional signatures often predict previously unknown cellular functions. A computational pipeline identified dominant expression patterns that demonstrate transcriptional similarity between disparate cell types. Dominant expression patterns along the root's longitudinal axis do not strictly correlate with previously defined developmental zones, and in many cases, we observed expression fluctuation along this axis. Both robust co-regulation of gene expression and potential phasing of gene expression were identified between individual roots. Methods that combine these profiles demonstrate transcriptionally rich and complex programs that define Arabidopsis root development in both space and time.