Interrelation between occlusal findings and orofacial myofunctional status in primary and mixed dentition: Part III: Interrelation between malocclusions and orofacial dysfunctions

J Orofac Orthop. 2007 Nov;68(6):462-76. doi: 10.1007/s00056-007-0717-y.
[Article in English, German]


Aim: It was the purpose of this study to analyze the relationship between selected types of malocclusion and specific types of static and dynamic orofacial dysfunction and to compare the results with subjects presenting regular occlusion. We aimed to identify which orthodontic and functional symptoms in early dentition would lead to malocclusion later on.

Subjects and methods: Occlusal relations and myofunctional status were evaluated in 3,041 children. We diagnosed dynamic and static myofunctional disorders as well as oral habits by means of functional examinations.

Results: No orofacial dysfunctions were found in 11.2% of the children with primary dentition and in 10.2% of the children with early mixed dentition. We observed no correlation between the existence of distoclusion and functional disorders. Lateral crossbite in mixed dentition, as well as increased overjet and frontal open bite in primary and early mixed dentitions appeared significantly more frequently in children with orofacial dysfunctions. Individuals with frontal open bite, lateral crossbite, reduced and increased overjet presented static dysfunctions significantly more frequently than those in dentitions with normal occlusion. Dynamic dysfunctions were significantly more prevalent in subjects with frontal open bite and lateral crossbite than in those with normal occlusion.

Conclusions: Our results enable us to prognosticate which children risk future orthodontic problems. Any child presenting one of the four occlusal disorders plus one static or two dynamic dysfunctions is a child more likely to develop orthodontic problems later on. Orthodontic prevention and early treatment must include functional rehabilitation so as to eliminate or at least diminish those factors causing undesirable developments.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Cephalometry
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Dentition, Mixed*
  • Facial Bones / physiopathology*
  • Facial Muscles / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malocclusion / diagnosis*
  • Malocclusion / physiopathology
  • Malocclusion / therapy
  • Masticatory Muscles / physiopathology
  • Orthodontics, Corrective*
  • Risk Factors
  • Tooth, Deciduous*