There is uncertainty about the relation between 24-h urinary uric acid excretion and the risk of calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. In addition, the risk associated with different levels of other urinary factors needs clarification. We performed a cross-sectional study of 24-h urine excretion and the risk of kidney stone formation in 3350 men and women, of whom 2237 had a history of nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for other urinary factors, urinary uric acid had a significant inverse association with stone formation in men, a marginal inverse association with risk in younger women, and no association in older women. The risk of stone formation in men and women significantly rose with increasing urine calcium and oxalate, and significantly decreased with increasing citrate and urine volume, with the change in risk beginning below the traditional normal thresholds. Other urinary factors were also associated with risk, but this varied by age and gender. Our study does not support the prevailing belief that higher urine uric acid excretion increases the risk for calcium oxalate stone formation. In addition, the current definitions of normal levels for urinary factors need to be re-evaluated.