Objective: While complete remission in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can be achieved after chemotherapy (CT), relapses occur for the majority of patients, underlying the need to eliminate residual disease. Based on dendritic cell (DC) vaccination, the triggering of an immune response against residual leukemia cells after CT could maintain patients in remission. The aim of our study was to assess, for vaccine preparation, generation of monocyte-derived DCs in AML patients after CT.
Materials and methods: We evaluated efficiency of the production, yields, maturation, and functional properties of DCs from 22 AML patients at different CT stages compared to those from 15 healthy donors.
Results: We demonstrated that monocyte-derived DC production is successful later than 3 weeks after the last CT cycle, whatever the CT was. Immature DCs demonstrated functional phagocytic activity. Mature DCs displayed migratory, T-cell stimulatory and Th1-activation capacities. Our results also suggest a favorable period from 20 to 60 days after CT for potent monocyte-derived DC production and immune activation.
Conclusion: In defining patient-sampling conditions, this preclinical study has direct implications for AML DC-based immunotherapy.