The importance of wood combustion to local air quality was estimated by measuring different air pollutants and conducting chemical mass balance modelling. PM10, PM2.5, PAHs and VOC concentrations in ambient air were measured in a typical Finnish residential area. Measurements were conducted in January-March 2006. For some compounds, wood combustion was clearly the main local source at this site. The effect of wood combustion was more clearly seen for organic compounds than for fine particle mass. For fine particles, background concentrations dominated. However, very high, short-lived concentration peaks were detected, when the wind direction and other weather conditions were favourable. For organic compounds, the effect of wood combustion was seen in diurnal and in two-week average concentrations. PAH-concentrations were often several times higher at the residential area than in the background. Benzene concentrations showed similar diurnal pattern as the use of wood and benzene/toluene ratios indicated that wood combustion is the most important source. A chemical mass balance model was used for studying the effect of wood combustion on the measured concentrations of VOCs. Model results showed that the main local sources for VOCs at Kurkimäki are wood combustion and traffic. Wood combustion was clearly the most important source for many compounds (e.g., benzene).