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Randomized Controlled Trial
. 2008 Sep;51(2):291-5.
doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2008.03.001. Epub 2008 Mar 7.

A Low-Energy-Dense Diet Adding Fruit Reduces Weight and Energy Intake in Women

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Randomized Controlled Trial

A Low-Energy-Dense Diet Adding Fruit Reduces Weight and Energy Intake in Women

Maria Conceição de Oliveira et al. Appetite. .

Abstract

This study evaluated the effect of adding fruit or oats to the diet of free-living women on energy consumption and body weight. Fruit and oat cookies had the same amount of fiber and total calories ( approximately 200 kcal), but differed in energy density. We analyzed data from a clinical trial conducted in a primary care unit in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Forty-nine women, ages ranging from 30 to 50 years, with body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2, were randomly chosen to add three apples (0.63 kcal/g energy density) or three pears (0.64 kcal/g energy density) or three oat cookies (3.7 kcal/g energy density) to their usual diet for 10 weeks. Fiber composition was similar ( approximately 6g). Statistical analysis of the repeated measures of dietary composition and body weight were analyzed using mixed model procedures. Results showed a significant decrease in the energy density during the follow-up (-1.23 kcal/g, p<0.04, and -1.29 kcal/g, p<0.05) for apples and pears, respectively, compared to the oat group. The energy intake also decreased significantly (-25.05 and -19.66 kcal/day) for the apple and pear group, respectively, but showed a small increase (+0.93) for the oat group. Apples and pears were also associated (p<0.001) with weight reduction (-0.93 kg for the apple and -0.84 for the pear group), whereas weight was unchanged (+0.21; p=0.35) in the oat group. Results suggest that energy densities of fruits, independent of their fiber amount can reduce energy consumption and body weight over time.

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