The dual roles of Ganoderma antioxidants on urothelial cell DNA under carcinogenic attack

J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Jul 23;118(2):324-30. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2008.05.003. Epub 2008 May 8.


Aims of the study: Ganoderma lucidum possesses significant antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. The effects of Lingzhi antioxidants on oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress were investigated, in order to understand their roles in bladder chemoprevention.

Materials and methods: Antioxidant-enhanced extracts were tested, in terms of ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH.) inhibition, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations, and cytotoxicity, using an in vitro pre-cancerous human uroepithelial cell (HUC-PC) tumorigenic model.

Results: Water-soluble extract (GLw) possesses relatively higher antioxidant capacities than the water-insoluble counterpart (GLe); however, under the challenge of carcinogenic 4-aminobiphenyl (ABP), GLw reduced the 8-OHdG concentration in HUC-PC culture, while GLe induced the formation of H(2)O(2) and 8-OHdG in a dose-dependent manner. The modern theory of antioxidant-oxidant balance seems to obey the theory of Yin-Yang in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

Conclusions: Water-soluble and water-insoluble components of Ganoderma lucidum exhibited dual roles in oxidative DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage may be an underlying mechanism of Lingzhi-induced apoptosis in bladder chemoprevention.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Aminobiphenyl Compounds / toxicity
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line
  • DNA Damage / drug effects
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxyguanosine / metabolism
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / administration & dosage
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / isolation & purification
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal / pharmacology*
  • Ferric Compounds / chemistry
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Reishi / chemistry*
  • Urothelium / cytology
  • Urothelium / drug effects
  • Urothelium / metabolism


  • Aminobiphenyl Compounds
  • Antioxidants
  • Drugs, Chinese Herbal
  • Ferric Compounds
  • 4-biphenylamine
  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Deoxyguanosine