Indecision and avoidant procrastination: the role of morningness-eveningness and time perspective in chronic delay lifestyles

J Gen Psychol. 2008 Jul;135(3):228-40. doi: 10.3200/GENP.135.3.228-240.


The authors examined how time orientation and morningness-eveningness relate to 2 forms of procrastination: indecision and avoidant forms. Participants were 509 adults (M age = 49.78 years, SD = 6.14) who completed measures of time orientation, morningness-eveningness, decisional procrastination (i.e., indecision), and avoidant procrastination. Results showed that morningness was negatively related to avoidant procrastination but not decisional procrastination. Overall, the results indicated different temporal profiles for indecision and avoidant procrastinations. Avoidant procrastination related to low future time orientation and low morningness, whereas indecision related to both (a) high negative and high positive past orientations and (b) low present-hedonistic and low future time orientations. The authors inferred that distinct forms of procrastination seem different on the basis of dimensions of time.

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Psychological
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arousal
  • Avoidance Learning*
  • Circadian Rhythm*
  • Decision Making*
  • Defense Mechanisms*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Personality Inventory
  • Sex Factors
  • Time Perception*