Objectives: We sought to examine whether marine-derived n-3 fatty acids are associated with less atherosclerosis in Japanese versus white populations in the U.S.
Background: Marine-derived n-3 fatty acids at low levels are cardioprotective through their antiarrhythmic effect.
Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study in 281 Japanese (defined as born and living in Japan), 306 white (defined as white men born and living in the U.S.), and 281 Japanese-American men (defined as Japanese men born and living in the U.S.) ages 40 to 49 years was conducted to assess intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, coronary artery calcification (CAC), and serum fatty acids.
Results: Japanese men had the lowest levels of atherosclerosis, whereas whites and Japanese Americans had similar levels. Japanese had 2-fold higher levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids than whites and Japanese Americans in the U.S. Japanese had significant and nonsignificant inverse associations of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids with IMT and CAC prevalence, respectively. The significant inverse association with IMT remained after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Neither whites nor Japanese Americans had such associations. Significant differences between Japanese and whites in multivariable-adjusted IMT (mean difference 39 mum, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 57mum, p < 0.001) and CAC prevalence (mean difference 10.7%, 95% CI: 2.9% to 18.4%, p = 0.007) became nonsignificant after we adjusted further for marine-derived n-3 fatty acids (22 mum, 95% CI: -1 to 46 mum, p = 0.065 and 5.0%, 95% CI: -5.3% to 15.4%, p = 0.341, respectively).
Conclusions: Very high levels of marine-derived n-3 fatty acids have antiatherogenic properties that are independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and may contribute to lower the burden of atherosclerosis in Japanese, a lower burden that is unlikely the result of genetic factors.