ABSTRACT The complete sequence of the 7.07 Mb genome of the biological control agent Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 is now available, providing a new opportunity to advance knowledge of biological control through genomics. P. fluorescens Pf-5 is a rhizosphere bacterium that suppresses seedling emergence diseases and produces a spectrum of antibiotics toxic to plant-pathogenic fungi and oomycetes. In addition to six known secondary metabolites produced by Pf-5, three novel secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified in the genome could also contribute to biological control. The genomic sequence provides numerous clues as to mechanisms used by the bacterium to survive in the spermosphere and rhizosphere. These features include broad catabolic and transport capabilities for utilizing seed and root exudates, an expanded collection of efflux systems for defense against environmental stress and microbial competition, and the presence of 45 outer membrane receptors that should allow for the uptake of iron from a wide array of siderophores produced by soil microorganisms. As expected for a bacterium with a large genome that lives in a rapidly changing environment, Pf-5 has an extensive collection of regulatory genes, only some of which have been characterized for their roles in regulation of secondary metabolite production or biological control. Consistent with its commensal lifestyle, Pf-5 appears to lack a number of virulence and pathogenicity factors found in plant pathogens.