Interleukin (IL)-18 is an important regulator of innate and acquired immune responses. Here we show that both the IL-18 and IL-18 receptor (IL-18R), which are induced in spinal dorsal horn, are crucial for tactile allodynia after nerve injury. Nerve injury induced a striking increase in IL-18 and IL-18R expression in the dorsal horn, and IL-18 and IL-18R were upregulated in hyperactive microglia and astrocytes, respectively. The functional inhibition of IL-18 signaling pathways suppressed injury-induced tactile allodynia and decreased the phosphorylation of nuclear factor kappaB in spinal astrocytes and the induction of astroglial markers. Conversely, intrathecal injection of IL-18 induced behavioral, morphological, and biochemical changes similar to those observed after nerve injury. Our results indicate that IL-18-mediated microglia/astrocyte interactions in the spinal cord have a substantial role in the generation of tactile allodynia. Thus, blocking IL-18 signaling in glial cells might provide a fruitful strategy for treating neuropathic pain.