Intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns: management and outcomes

Pediatr Neurol. 2009 Jan;40(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2008.09.019.


Child neurology is frequently a late player in the management of the term newborn with intracranial hemorrhage in the first neonatal week. It is crucial, however, that the child neurologist undertake a comprehensive evaluation by investigating etiology and management of the hemorrhage. Intracranial hemorrhage is usually associated with premature newborns. The literature on intracranial hemorrhage in term newborns is largely in the form of isolated case reports or a small series of cases, and mostly nonsystematic. Presented here is an evidence-based review of the incidence, risk factors, etiologies, and clinical management of intracranial hemorrhage in the first week after birth, with discussion of the role of neuroimaging and hematologic investigation. Consideration of these investigations along with documentation of every intervention or its explanation will reduce parental anxiety and will assure the best possible neurologic as well as legal outcomes of term newborns with intracranial hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Birth Injuries / complications*
  • Birth Injuries / etiology
  • Delivery, Obstetric / adverse effects*
  • Delivery, Obstetric / methods
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / diagnosis
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / etiology
  • Intracranial Hemorrhages* / therapy
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Tomography Scanners, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome