A parentage case is described that revealed a potentially erroneous exclusion from paternity in three systems, two on chromosome 21 and one on chromosome Y. Follow-up tests, especially of chromosome 21, were subsequently performed. Actually, the child's chromosome 21 showed alleles of maternal but not of paternal origin being consistent with a maternal uniparental disomy of chromosome 21. The third genetic incompatibility was observed at the Y chromosome and attributed to a usual one-step de novo mutation. This case is emphasizing the (generally adopted) requirement that an exclusion from paternity must not be based on the absence of paternal alleles at genetic systems all located on the same chromosome. In fact, the need for extended typing programmes is demonstrated.