The effects of a pumpkin paste concentrate and its components on oral glucose tolerance and serum lipid levels were determined in non-obese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. In the oral glucose tolerance test, the pumpkin paste concentrate-fed group maintained a lower glucose level than the control group between 15 and 60 min. The compounds considered to be effective in improving glucose tolerance and contained in the methanol extract of the pumpkin in relatively abundant amounts were isolated and identified as trigonelline (TRG) and nicotinic acid (NA).Feeding a diet containing TRG and NA respectively improved and tended to improve glucose tolerance. The insulin level increased after 15 min in the TRG-fed GK rats and then gradually decreased over the next 120 min. In contrast, a gradual increase was seen in the insulin level over 120 min in the control GK rats not fed with TRG, suggesting that TRG could improve the insulin resistance. The serum and liver triglyceride (TG) levels in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats were lower than those in the control GK rats. Lower activity of liver fatty acid synthase (FAS), and higher activity of liver carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) and glucokinase (GLK) in the TRG- and NA-fed GK rats than in the control GK rats were observed. This suggests that the regulation of these enzyme activities by TRG and NA was closely related to the suppression of both TG accumulation and the progression of diabetes.