Stress repression in restrained rats by (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation and gene expression profiling of their whole blood cells

J Agric Food Chem. 2009 Jun 24;57(12):5480-5. doi: 10.1021/jf900420g.


As an attempt to quantitatively analyze the physiopsychological effects elicited by odorants, white blood cells and gene expression were profiled in the whole blood of the rats exposed to (R)-(-)-linalool during restraint stress for 2 h. In neutrophils and lymphocytes, significant changes caused by the restraint were repressed by their exposure to the odorant. This indicates that inhalation attenuates stress-induced changes. Significant changes on the stress-induced variations were induced by inhalation in 115 gene expression levels. Of those, 109 genes were down-regulated, whereas the remaining 6 were up-regulated. These findings show that (R)-(-)-linalool inhalation represses stress-induced effects on the profiles of both blood cells and gene expression. Furthermore, these results suggest the possibility that the odorant-induced effects can be quantitatively evaluated by analyzing the profiles of blood cells and gene expression.

MeSH terms

  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Animals
  • Blood Cells / metabolism*
  • Food Additives / chemistry
  • Food Additives / metabolism*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Inhalation Exposure*
  • Male
  • Models, Animal
  • Monoterpenes / chemistry
  • Monoterpenes / metabolism*
  • Odorants
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Stress, Physiological*


  • Acyclic Monoterpenes
  • Food Additives
  • Monoterpenes
  • linalool