Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in intensive care units of Sanandaj general hospitals (Kurdistan, Iran)

Chemotherapy. 2009;55(4):287-92. doi: 10.1159/000224656. Epub 2009 Jun 10.


This study focused on analyzing the spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) enzymes among Gram-negative bacteria at intensive care units (ICUs). Between January 2007 and January 2008, 301 consecutive clinical isolates of Gram-negative type were isolated. Of these, 66 strains were collected from patients in ICUs in two major hospitals in Sanandaj (Kurdistan, Iran). The isolates were identified, tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, and analyzed for the presence of ESBL using the double-disk synergy test. Isolates with a positive ESBL phenotype were subjected to PCR for SHV, TEM, OXA and CTX-M beta-lactamase gene families. Sixty-six Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from clinical samples of 66 ICU patients. These isolates included 16 Escherichia coli, 28 Enterobacter spp., 5 Pseudomonas spp., 10 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 3 Serratia marcescens and 1 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Twenty-three (34.85%) of these isolates were ESBL producing. The ESBL genes detected were SHV, TEM, OXA-1, OXA-2 and CTX-M. The results show the presence of ESBL genes among Gram-negative bacteria in the ICU setting of Sanandaj's hospitals. There is a need to institute a strict hospital infection control policy and regular surveillance of bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Blood / microbiology
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / classification
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Hospitals, General
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Iran / epidemiology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Respiratory System / microbiology
  • Skin / microbiology
  • Urinary Tract / microbiology
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • beta-Lactamases