Having a word with yourself: neural correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance

Neuroimage. 2010 Jan 15;49(2):1849-56. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.09.019. Epub 2009 Sep 18.


Self-criticism is strongly correlated with a range of psychopathologies, such as depression, eating disorders and anxiety. In contrast, self-reassurance is inversely associated with such psychopathologies. Despite the importance of self-judgements and evaluations, little is known about the neurophysiology of these internal processes. The current study therefore used a novel fMRI task to investigate the neuronal correlates of self-criticism and self-reassurance. Participants were presented statements describing two types of scenario, with the instruction to either imagine being self-critical or self-reassuring in that situation. One scenario type focused on a personal setback, mistake or failure, which would elicit negative emotions, whilst the second was of a matched neutral event. Self-criticism was associated with activity in lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions and dorsal anterior cingulate (dAC), therefore linking self-critical thinking to error processing and resolution, and also behavioural inhibition. Self-reassurance was associated with left temporal pole and insula activation, suggesting that efforts to be self-reassuring engage similar regions to expressing compassion and empathy towards others. Additionally, we found a dorsal/ventral PFC divide between an individual's tendency to be self-critical or self-reassuring. Using multiple regression analyses, dorsolateral PFC activity was positively correlated with high levels of self-criticism (assessed via self-report measure), suggesting greater error processing and behavioural inhibition in such individuals. Ventrolateral PFC activity was positively correlated with high self-reassurance. Our findings may have implications for the neural basis of a range of mood disorders that are characterised by a preoccupation with personal mistakes and failures, and a self-critical response to such events.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / physiology*
  • Brain Mapping
  • Emotions / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Imagination / physiology
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Oxygen / blood
  • Prefrontal Cortex / physiology*
  • Psychological Tests
  • Regression Analysis
  • Self Concept*
  • Self-Assessment
  • Young Adult


  • Oxygen