A novel platelet glycoprotein has been purified and characterized. This glycoprotein, designated Pltgp40, is an acidic sialylated 40,000-dalton protein that bears both O-linked and N-linked oligosaccharides. Treatment of Pltgp40 with neuraminidase resulted in a 5,000-dalton reduction in its Mr and a 1.5 Unit alkaline shift in the isoelectric point, indicating the presence of a large number of sialic acid residues. A similar size reduction and change in pl were observed after treatment of Pltgp40 with O-glycanase showing that sialic acids are present on O-linked oligosaccharides. Digestion of Pltgp40 with N-glycanase reduced the Mr to approximately 20,000 daltons but did not affect the isoelectric point, suggesting that Pltgp40 contains six to seven nonsialylated N-linked carbohydrate chains. High Mr proteins were observed in affinity purified Pltgp40 and were identified as detergent-stable protein oligomers consisting of multiple 40,000-dalton monomers. Immunodepletion and direct binding studies indicated that Pltgp40 was not equivalent to Ig Fc receptor type II, another 40,000-dalton glycoprotein expressed on platelets. However, Pltgp40 copurified with Fc receptor type II when platelet extracts were loaded onto human IgG affinity columns, raising the possibility that Pltgp40 may associate with Fc receptors or Fc receptor-lg complexes. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N-terminus of Pltgp40 was performed and confirmed that Pltgp40 is a novel platelet glycoprotein. Epitopes on Pltgp40 appear to be widely expressed because monoclonal antibodies against Pltgp40 also reacted with a variety of myeloid, lymphoid, and epithelial cells. Pltgp40 was detected on activated but not resting platelets, indicating that Pltgp40 is a platelet activation marker.