Physiology and toxicity of fluoride

Indian J Dent Res. 2009 Jul-Sep;20(3):350-5. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.57379.


Fluoride has been described as an essential element needed for normal development and growth of animals and extremely useful for human beings. Fluoride is abundant in the environment and the main source of fluoride to humans is drinking water. It has been proved to be beneficial in recommended doses, and at the same time its toxicity at higher levels has also been well established. Fluoride gets accumulated in hard tissues of the body and has been know to play an important role in mineralization of bone and teeth. At high levels it has been known to cause dental and skeletal fluorosis. There are suggested effects of very high levels of fluoride on various body organs and genetic material. The purpose of this paper is to review the various aspects of fluoride and its importance in human life.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Bone and Bones / metabolism*
  • Cariostatic Agents / pharmacokinetics
  • Cariostatic Agents / toxicity*
  • Fluoridation / adverse effects*
  • Fluorides / pharmacokinetics
  • Fluorides / toxicity*
  • Fluorosis, Dental*
  • Humans
  • India


  • Cariostatic Agents
  • Fluorides