Global gene expression analysis reveals differences in cellular responses to hydroxyl- and superoxide anion radical-induced oxidative stress in caco-2 cells

Toxicol Sci. 2010 Apr;114(2):193-203. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfp309. Epub 2009 Dec 31.


Reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative stress in the colon is involved in inflammatory bowel diseases and suggested to be associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, our insight in molecular responses to different oxygen radicals is still fragmentary. Therefore, we studied global gene expression by an extensive time series (0.08, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h) analyses in human colon cancer (caco-2) cells after exposure to H(2)O(2) or the superoxide anion donor menadione. Differences in gene expression were investigated by hybridization on two-color microarrays against nonexposed time-matched control cells. Next to gene expression, correlations with related phenotypic markers (8-oxodG levels and cell cycle arrest) were investigated. Gene expression analysis resulted in 1404 differentially expressed genes upon H(2)O(2) challenge and 979 genes after menadione treatment. Further analysis of gene expression data revealed how these oxidant responses can be discriminated. Time-dependent coregulated genes immediately showed a pulse-like response to H(2)O(2), while the menadione-induced expression is not restored over 24 h. Pathway analyses demonstrated that H(2)O(2) immediately influences pathways involved in the immune function, while menadione constantly regulated cell cycle-related pathways Altogether, this study offers a novel and detailed insight in the similarities and differences of the time-dependent oxidative stress responses induced by the oxidants H(2)O(2) and menadione and show that these can be discriminated regarding their modulation of particular colon carcinogenesis-related mechanisms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy
  • Adenocarcinoma / genetics*
  • Adenocarcinoma / pathology
  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Caco-2 Cells
  • Cell Cycle / drug effects
  • Cell Cycle / genetics
  • Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Colonic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Deoxyguanosine / analogs & derivatives
  • Deoxyguanosine / genetics
  • Deoxyguanosine / metabolism
  • Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / pharmacology
  • Microarray Analysis
  • Oxidants / toxicity
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / pharmacology*
  • Vitamin K 3 / pharmacology


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Oxidants
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Vitamin K 3
  • 8-Hydroxy-2'-Deoxyguanosine
  • Hydrogen Peroxide
  • Deoxyguanosine