The management of urinary incontinence has been revolutionized by the introduction of intermittent catheterization by Lapides in 1972, and later, by the description of the 'trans-appendicular continent cystostomy' by Mitrofanoff in 1980. Mitrofanoff launched a new concept whereby the bladder could be emptied by a route other than the urethra. This concept led to the publication of a plethora of alternatives to the appendix conduit, including the transverse ileal (Yang-Monti) tube, and conduits constructed from ureter, Fallopian tube, tubularized preputial transverse island flap, and longitudinally tubularized ileal and gastric segments. Further experience with the procedure, and the onset of complications such as stomal stenosis and leakage, instigated the description of various stomal options and conduit implantation techniques. More recently, laparoscopic and robotically assisted techniques have also been performed. We present a review of these techniques, and the outcomes reported over the last 30 years since the Mitrofanoff principle was first described.
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