Background: The immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) is an edible lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from symbiotic bacteria found in crops. IP-PA1 is known to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression; therefore, its macrophage-activating effect in the presence of chemotherapeutic agents was evaluated.
Materials and methods: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in IP-PA1-treated RAW264 and J774.1 cells was examined using Western blot analyses; Griess assay and ELISA were used to examine the production of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha, respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was also assessed using Western blot analyses. The effect of IP-PA1 on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry after annexin-V staining. The growth of macrophages treated with chemotherapeutic agents and IP-PA1 was analyzed using an MTT assay.
Results: IP-PA1 activated NF-kappaB and ameliorated chemotherapy induced growth inhibition in the cells.
Conclusion: IP-PA1 is an edible drug that can potentially support chemotherapy by ameliorating chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.