Protective effects of the immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 on chemotherapeutic agent-induced macrophage growth inhibition

Anticancer Res. 2010 Jun;30(6):2033-40.


Background: The immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1) is an edible lipopolysaccharide (LPS) derived from symbiotic bacteria found in crops. IP-PA1 is known to ameliorate chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression; therefore, its macrophage-activating effect in the presence of chemotherapeutic agents was evaluated.

Materials and methods: Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation in IP-PA1-treated RAW264 and J774.1 cells was examined using Western blot analyses; Griess assay and ELISA were used to examine the production of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor alpha, respectively. The expression of apoptosis-related proteins was also assessed using Western blot analyses. The effect of IP-PA1 on doxorubicin-induced apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry after annexin-V staining. The growth of macrophages treated with chemotherapeutic agents and IP-PA1 was analyzed using an MTT assay.

Results: IP-PA1 activated NF-kappaB and ameliorated chemotherapy induced growth inhibition in the cells.

Conclusion: IP-PA1 is an edible drug that can potentially support chemotherapy by ameliorating chemotherapy-induced immunosuppression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / pharmacology*
  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / toxicity*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Macrophages / drug effects*
  • Macrophages / physiology
  • Mice
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism
  • Pantoea / chemistry*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / analysis
  • bcl-X Protein / analysis


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Bcl2l1 protein, mouse
  • NF-kappa B
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • bcl-X Protein