A CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Florideophyceae) has a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module

J Exp Bot. 2010 Oct;61(15):4461-8. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erq254. Epub 2010 Aug 11.


Cellulose synthases form rosette terminal complexes in the plasma membranes of Streptophyta and various linear terminal complexes in other taxa. The sequence of a putative CESA from Griffithsia monilis (Rhodophyta, Floridiophyceae) was deduced using a cloning strategy involving degenerate primers, a cDNA library screen, and 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). RACE identified two alternative transcriptional starts and four alternative polyadenylation sites. The first translation start codon provided an open reading frame of 2610 bp encoding 870 amino acids and was PCR amplified without introns from genomic DNA. Southern hybridization indicated one strongly hybridizing gene with possible weakly related genes or pseudogenes. Amino acid sequence analysis identified a family 48 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) upstream of the protein's first predicted transmembrane domain. There are broad similarities in predicted 3D structures of the family 48 modules from CESA, from several glycogen- and starch-binding enzymes, and from protein kinases, but there are substitutions at some residues thought to be involved in ligand binding. The module in G. monilis CESA will be on the cytoplasmic face of the plasma membrane so that it could potentially bind either low molecular weight ligands or starch which is cytosolic rather than inside membrane-bound plastids in red algae. Possible reasons why red algal CESAs have evolved family 48 modules perhaps as part of a system to regulate cellulose synthase activity in relation to cellular carbohydrate status are briefly discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Arabidopsis / enzymology
  • Blotting, Southern
  • Carbohydrates / chemistry*
  • DNA, Complementary / genetics
  • Gene Dosage / genetics
  • Genes, Plant / genetics
  • Glucosyltransferases / chemistry*
  • Glucosyltransferases / genetics
  • Glucosyltransferases / metabolism*
  • Introns / genetics
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Protein Binding
  • Protein Structure, Tertiary
  • Rats
  • Rhodophyta / enzymology*
  • Rhodophyta / genetics
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Structural Homology, Protein


  • Carbohydrates
  • DNA, Complementary
  • Glucosyltransferases
  • cellulose synthase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/GU563823