Dog erythrocyte antigens 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal blood typing and cross-matching by gel column technique

Vet Clin Pathol. 2010 Sep;39(3):306-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-165X.2010.00249.x. Epub 2010 Aug 18.


Background: Testing for canine blood types other than dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 (DEA 1.1) is controversial and complicated by reagent availability and methodology.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to use available gel column technology to develop an extended blood-typing method using polyclonal reagents for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal and to assess the use of gel columns for cross-matching.

Methods: Dogs (43-75) were typed for DEA 1.1, 1.2, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. METHODS included tube agglutination (Tube) using polyclonal reagents, a commercially available DEA 1.1 gel column test kit (Standard-Gel) using monoclonal reagent, and multiple gel columns (Extended-Gel) using polyclonal reagents. Blood from 10 recipient and 15 donor dogs was typed as described above and cross-matched using the gel column technique.

Results: Of 43 dogs typed for DEA 1.1, 23, 25, and 20 dogs were positive using Standard-Gel, Extended-Gel, and Tube, respectively. Typing for DEA 1.2 was not achievable with Extended-Gel. For 75 dogs typed for DEA 3, 4, and 7, concordance of Extended-Gel with Tube was 94.7%, 100%, and 84%, respectively. Dal, determined only by Extended-Gel, was positive for all dogs. Post-transfusion major cross-matches were incompatible in 10 of 14 pairings, but none were associated with demonstrable blood type incompatibilities.

Conclusions: Gel column methodology can be adapted for use with polyclonal reagents for detecting DEA 1.1, 3, 4, 7, and Dal. Agglutination reactions are similar between Extended-Gel and Tube, but are more easily interpreted with Extended-Gel. When using gel columns for cross-matching, incompatible blood cross-matches can be detected following sensitization by transfusion, although in this study incompatibilities associated with any tested DEA or Dal antigens were not found.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Group Antigens / immunology*
  • Blood Grouping and Crossmatching / veterinary*
  • Dogs / blood*
  • Dogs / immunology
  • Erythrocytes / immunology*
  • Hemagglutination Tests / methods
  • Hemagglutination Tests / veterinary*
  • Immunodiffusion / methods
  • Immunodiffusion / veterinary
  • Sensitivity and Specificity


  • Blood Group Antigens