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Comparative Study
. 2011 Feb;14(2):340-6.
doi: 10.1017/S1368980010002454. Epub 2010 Sep 21.

Plasma Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: Results From the EPIC-Oxford Study

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Comparative Study

Plasma Concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in Meat Eaters, Fish Eaters, Vegetarians and Vegans: Results From the EPIC-Oxford Study

Francesca L Crowe et al. Public Health Nutr. .

Abstract

Objective: Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

Design: A cross-sectional analysis.

Setting: United Kingdom.

Subjects: Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort.

Results: Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (<25 nmol/l) during the winter and spring ranged from <1 % to 8 % across the diet groups.

Conclusions: Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were lower in vegetarians and vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

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