Anticancer activities of an anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice against breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

Nutr Cancer. 2010;62(8):1128-36. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2010.494821.


Anthocyanins widely present in human diet and have a variety of health effects. This study investigates the anticancer effects of an anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (AEBR) on breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. AEBR reduced the viability of breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 (ER(+), HER2/neu(-)), MDA-MB-231 (ER(-), HER2/neu(-)), and MDA-MB-453 (ER(-), HER2/neu(+)) and induced apoptosis in MDA-MB-453 cells via the intrinsic pathway in vitro by activating caspase cascade, cleaving poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), depolarizing mitochondrial membrane potential, and releasing cytochrome C. Oral administration of AEBR (100 mg/kg/day) to BALB/c nude mice bearing MDA-MB-453 cell xenografts significantly suppressed tumor growth and angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of angiogenesis factors MMP-9, MMP-2, and uPA in tumor tissue. Altogether, this study suggests the anticancer effects of AEBR against human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis and suppressing angiogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthocyanins / pharmacology*
  • Anthocyanins / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Breast Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology
  • Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted / metabolism
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects
  • Mice
  • Mice, Nude
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / chemically induced
  • Neovascularization, Pathologic / prevention & control
  • Oryza / chemistry*
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism
  • Random Allocation
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Tumor Burden / drug effects
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / metabolism
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Plant Extracts
  • Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
  • Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted