Difficulties of drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and failure to eliminate cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be the major causes of tumor recurrences in children with medulloblastoma (MB). Seneca Valley virus-001 (SVV-001) is a naturally occurring oncolytic picornavirus that can be systemically administered. Here, we report its antitumor activities against MB cells in a panel of 10 primary tumor-based orthotopic xenograft mouse models. We found that SVV-001 killed the primary cultured xenograft cells, infected and replicated in tumor cells expressing CSC surface marker CD133, and eliminated tumor cells capable of forming neurospheres in vitro in 5 of the 10 xenograft models. We confirmed that SVV-001 could pass through BBB in vivo. A single i.v. injection of SVV-001 in 2 anaplastic MB models led to widespread infection of the preformed intracerebellar (ICb) xenografts, resulting in significant increase in survival (2.2-5.9-fold) in both models and complete elimination of ICb xenografts in 8 of the 10 long-term survivors. Mechanistically, we showed that the intracellular replication of SVV-001 is mediated through a subverted autophagy that is different from the bona fide autophagic process induced by rapamycin. Our data suggest that SVV-001 is well suited for MB treatment. This work expands the current views in the oncolytic therapy field regarding the utility of oncolytic viruses in simultaneous targeting of stem and nonstem tumor cells.