Hydrogen-rich saline reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by inhibit of JNK and NF-κB activation in a rat model of amyloid-beta-induced Alzheimer's disease

Neurosci Lett. 2011 Mar 17;491(2):127-32. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2011.01.022. Epub 2011 Jan 14.


This study is to examine if hydrogen-rich saline reduced amyloid-beta (Aβ) induced neural inflammation and oxidative stress in a rat model by attenuation of activation of JNK and NF-κB. Sprague-Dawley male rats (n=18, 280-330 g) were divided into three groups, sham operated, Aβ1-42 injected and Aβ1-42 plus hydrogen-rich saline treated animals. Hydrogen-rich saline (5 ml/kg, i.p., daily) was injected for 10 days after intraventricular injection of Aβ1-42. The levels of IL-1β were assessed by ELISA analysis, 8-OH-dG by immunohistochemistry in the brain slides, and JNK and NF-κB by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. After Aβ1-42 injection, the level of IL-1β, 8-OH-dG, JNK and NF-κB all increased in brain tissues, while hydrogen-rich saline treatment decreased the level of IL-1β, 8-OH-dG and the activation of JNK and NF-κB. In conclusion, hydrogen-rich saline prevented Aβ-induced neuroinflammation and oxidative stress, possibly by attenuation of activation of c-Jun NH₂-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in this rat model.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease / metabolism*
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / toxicity
  • Animals
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Enzyme Activation / drug effects*
  • Free Radical Scavengers / pharmacology*
  • Hydrogen / pharmacology*
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Inflammation / enzymology
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4 / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Male
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Sodium Chloride / pharmacology


  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Free Radical Scavengers
  • NF-kappa B
  • Sodium Chloride
  • Hydrogen
  • MAP Kinase Kinase 4