Cytochrome P450 1A, 1B, and 1C mRNA induction patterns in three-spined stickleback exposed to a transient and a persistent inducer

Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2011 Jun;154(1):42-55. doi: 10.1016/j.cbpc.2011.02.005. Epub 2011 Feb 25.


Cytochrome P450 1 (CYP1) mRNA induction patterns in three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were explored for use in environmental monitoring of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists. The cDNAs of stickleback CYP1A, CYP1B1, CYP1C1, and CYP1C2 were cloned and their basal and induced expression patterns were determined in the brain, gill, liver and kidney. Also, their induction time courses were compared after waterborne exposure to a transient (indigo) or a persistent (3,3',4,4',5-pentacholorbiphenyl PCB 126) AHR agonist. The cloned stickleback CYP1s exhibited a high amino acid sequence identity compared with their zebrafish orthologs and their constitutive tissue distribution patterns largely agreed with those reported in other species. PCB 126 (100 nM) induced different CYP1 expression patterns in the four tissues, suggesting tissue-specific regulation. Both indigo (1 nM) and PCB 126 (10 nM) induced a strong CYP1 expression in gills. However, while PCB 126 gave rise to a high and persistent induction in gills and liver, induction by indigo was transient in both organs. The number of putative dioxin response elements found in each CYP1 gene promoter roughly reflected the induction levels of the genes. The high responsiveness of CYP1A, CYP1B1, and CYP1C1 observed in several organs suggests that three-spined stickleback is suitable for monitoring of pollution with AHR agonists.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases / genetics
  • Brain / drug effects
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1 / genetics
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / genetics*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Environmental Monitoring / methods
  • Estrogen Antagonists / pharmacology
  • Fish Proteins / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Profiling*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / drug effects*
  • Gills / drug effects
  • Gills / enzymology
  • Gills / metabolism
  • Kidney / drug effects
  • Kidney / enzymology
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / drug effects
  • Liver / enzymology
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls / pharmacology*
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon / agonists
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Smegmamorpha / genetics*
  • Time Factors


  • Estrogen Antagonists
  • Fish Proteins
  • Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon
  • Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System
  • Polychlorinated Biphenyls
  • Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP1B1
  • 3,4,5,3',4'-pentachlorobiphenyl