The melamine excretion effect of the electrolyzed reduced water in melamine-fed mice

Food Chem Toxicol. 2011 Aug;49(8):1814-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2011.04.033. Epub 2011 May 5.


Our hypothesis is that the intake of functional water, electrolyzed reduced water (ERW) can excrete melamine in body was evoked by melamine-tainted feed (MTF). To address this issue, we investigated the effect of ERW in MTF-mice model by way of body weight gain, incidence of urinary crystals and bladder stone, biochemical and haematological examination, histopathologic finding of kidney and urinary bladder, and the evaluation of bladder stone. We found that the rate of body weight gain was significantly more increased in MTF+ERW group than MTF+PW group. Accordingly, the number of immunocytes such as leukocyte, neutrophil and monocyte as well as the mean weight of spleen was significantly increased in MTF+ERW group. The incidence of urinary crystals was significantly higher in MTF+ERW group, whereas the incidence of urinary bladder stones was lower in MTF+ERW group (52.4%) than in MTF+PW group (38.1%). Also, urinary crystals were more precipitated in MTF+ERW group than MTF+PW group, and urinary bladder stone consists of 100% melamine. Collectively, our data clearly show that ERW intake is helpful to excrete of melamine in MTF mice model and this is the first report on the melamine excretion and clinically implying the safer fluid remedy for melamine-intoxicated hosts.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Electrolysis
  • Female
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred ICR
  • Organ Size
  • Triazines / administration & dosage
  • Triazines / toxicity*
  • Urinary Bladder / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Calculi / chemically induced*
  • Water / chemistry*


  • Triazines
  • Water
  • melamine