From circulating biomarkers to genomics and imaging in the prediction of cardiovascular events in the general population

Ann Med. 2012 Aug;44(5):433-47. doi: 10.3109/07853890.2011.582511. Epub 2011 May 31.


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. In the last decades numerous markers have been considered and investigated for the prediction of CV events, but only a few of them resulted in improved global risk assessment beyond traditional risk factors when incorporated into coronary evaluation scores. Recent genetic studies have pointed out a few but consistent loci or genes which are independently associated with CV risk. The idea is fascinating that these genetic markers could lead to improved individual CV risk assessment and tailored pharmacological interventions. In this brief review we will not make a systematic review of all non-genetic and genetic markers of CV risk but we will try to make a brief overview of the most interesting ones with the aim to underline potential 'pros' and 'cons' of their implementation in clinical practice.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / genetics*
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genomics*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / blood
  • Phospholipases / blood
  • Risk Assessment
  • Risk Factors


  • Biomarkers
  • Genetic Markers
  • Phospholipases