Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis

Urol Res. 2011 Oct;39(5):345-50. doi: 10.1007/s00240-011-0374-x. Epub 2011 Jun 4.


Crystallization process has a major role in urolithiasis. In the present study, effect of two indigenous plants extracts namely Boerhavia diffusa and Bryophyllum pinnatum extract was determined on the crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals. Effect on the number, size and type of calcium oxalate crystals was observed. Results showed significant activity of both extracts against calcium oxalate crystallization at different concentrations (P < 0.05). Size of the crystals gradually reduced with the increasing concentration of both extracts. The number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals which are injurious to epithelial cells gradually reduced and at the highest concentration of extracts (100 mg/ml) completely disappeared (P < 0.05). These results confirm that B. diffusa and B. pinnatum extracts have antiurolithic activity and have the ability to reduce crystal size as well as to promote the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals rather than monohydrate (COM) crystals. Control of crystal size and formation of COD rather than COM crystals, in combination with the diuretic action of extracts is an important way to control urolithiasis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Calcium Oxalate / chemistry*
  • Calcium Oxalate / urine
  • Crystallization
  • Humans
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Kalanchoe*
  • Male
  • Nyctaginaceae*
  • Phytotherapy*
  • Plant Extracts / pharmacology*
  • Urolithiasis / drug therapy*
  • Urolithiasis / urine


  • Plant Extracts
  • Calcium Oxalate