Association between fish consumption and nephropathy in American Indians--the Strong Heart Study

J Ren Nutr. 2012 Mar;22(2):221-227. doi: 10.1053/j.jrn.2011.03.003. Epub 2011 Jul 13.


Objective: The present study examined the association between fish consumption and nephropathy in American Indians.

Methods: In the family cohort of the Strong Heart Study, we investigated 2,261 participants with baseline examination between 2001 and 2003 and follow-up examination between 2006 and 2008. The average follow-up period was 5.4 years. We defined fish consumption as the sum of dietary intake of tuna, fried fish, and nonfried fish obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Nephropathy was defined as microalbuminuria (urinary albumin-creatinine ratio [ACR]: 30 to 299 mg/g), macroalbuminuria (urinary ACR: ≥ 300 mg/g), or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). Using regression models, we examined the association between fish consumption measured at baseline and 2 outcomes in nephropathy present at follow-up, albuminuria, or renal impairment, and change in urinary ACR or estimated glomerular filtration rate between baseline and follow-up examinations.

Results: The prevalence of microalbuminuria, macroalbuminuria, and renal impairment was 13%, 3%, and 4%, respectively. The fish items consumed by the participants were predominantly deep-fried. We found no associations between fish consumption and any measure of nephropathy after adjusting for demographic, clinical, lifestyle, and dietary factors.

Conclusions: Dietary intake of predominantly fried fish was not associated with a lower risk of nephropathy in American Indians.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Albuminuria / urine
  • Animals
  • Cohort Studies
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / complications
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology*
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Fishes*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Indians, North American*
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Life Style
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Creatinine