Aqueous extract of Boerhaavia diffusa root ameliorates ethylene glycol-induced hyperoxaluric oxidative stress and renal injury in rat kidney

Pharm Biol. 2011 Dec;49(12):1224-33. doi: 10.3109/13880209.2011.581671. Epub 2011 Aug 16.


Introduction: Boerhaavia diffusa Linn. (Nyctaginaceae) is widely used in traditional Indian medicines against renal afflictions including calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolithiasis and is known for antioxidant activity.

Objective: The present study was designed to investigate the ameliorating effect of aqueous extract of B. diffusa roots (BDE) in hyperoxaluric oxidative stress and renal cell injury.

Material and methods: In vitro antioxidant activity of BDE was estimated in terms of total phenolic content and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity. Wistar albino rats were given 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol in drinking water to induce chronic hyperoxaluria and simultaneously BDE was given to nephrolithiasic treated rats at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. orally for 28 days. Urinary volume, oxalate, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), malondialdehyde (MDA) and antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, GST, GPx) were evaluated.

Results and discussion: BDE extract was found to posses a high total phenolic content and exhibited significant free radicals scavenging activity. Oxalate excretion significantly increased in hyperoxaluric animals as compared to control which was protected in BDE-treated animals. BDE treatment significantly reduced level of MDA and improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes followed by reduction in BUN and serum creatinine. In addition, BDE reduced the number of CaOx monohydrate crystals in the urine. Histological analysis depicted that BDE treatment inhibited deposition of CaOx crystal and renal cell damage.

Conclusion: The present study reveals that antioxidant activity of BDE significantly protects against hyperoxaluric oxidative stress and renal cell injury in urolithiasis.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced
  • Acute Kidney Injury / drug therapy*
  • Acute Kidney Injury / pathology
  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / metabolism
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Catalase / metabolism
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Ethylene Glycol
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism
  • Hyperoxaluria / chemically induced
  • Hyperoxaluria / drug therapy*
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / metabolism
  • Nyctaginaceae / chemistry*
  • Oxalic Acid / metabolism
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Roots / chemistry
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism
  • Water


  • Antioxidants
  • Biphenyl Compounds
  • Picrates
  • Plant Extracts
  • Water
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Oxalic Acid
  • 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl
  • Catalase
  • Glutathione Peroxidase
  • Superoxide Dismutase
  • Ethylene Glycol
  • Glutathione