We examined the effects of increased levels of thioredoxin 1 (Trx1) on resistance to oxidative stress and aging in transgenic mice overexpressing Trx1 [Tg(TRX1)(+/0)]. The Tg(TRX1)(+/0) mice showed significantly higher Trx1 protein levels in all the tissues examined compared with the wild-type littermates. Oxidative damage to proteins and levels of lipid peroxidation were significantly lower in the livers of Tg(TRX1)(+/0) mice compared with wild-type littermates. The survival study demonstrated that male Tg(TRX1)(+/0) mice significantly extended the earlier part of life span compared with wild-type littermates, but no significant life extension was observed in females. Neither male nor female Tg(TRX1)(+/0) mice showed changes in maximum life span. Our findings suggested that the increased levels of Trx1 in the Tg(TRX1)(+/0) mice were correlated to increased resistance to oxidative stress, which could be beneficial in the earlier part of life span but not the maximum life span in the C57BL/6 mice.