Timing of assessment of psychological construct is controversial and results differ based on the model of pain induction. Previous studies have not used an exercise-induced injury model to investigate timing of psychological assessment. Exercise-induced injury models may be appropriate for these investigations because they approximate clinical pain conditions better than other experimental stimuli. In this study we examined the changes of psychological constructs over time and determined whether timing of assessment affected the construct's association with reports of pain intensity and disability. One-hundred twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) prior to inducing muscle injury to the shoulder. The PCS and TSK were measured again 48 and 96 hours postinjury induction. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 48 and 96 hours and served as dependent variables in separate regression models. Results indicated that the FPQ-III had the strongest prediction of pain intensity from baseline to 96 hours. After baseline the PCS and TSK were stronger predictors of pain intensity and disability, respectively. These data provide support for the use of psychological constructs in predicting outcomes from shoulder pain. However, they deviate from the current theoretical model indicating that fear of pain is a consequence of injury and instead suggests that fear of pain before injury may influence reports of pain intensity.
Perspective: The current study provides evidence that fear of pain can be assessed prior to injury. Furthermore, it supports that after injury pain catastrophizing and kinesiophobia are independently associated with pain and disability. Overall these data suggest that timing of psychological assessment may be an important consideration in clinical environments.
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